MV2G IQ Test


What is Intelligence and What is IQ

Definition of Intelligence and IQ

Definition of Intelligence: Intelligence can be defined as a property of the mind that encompasses many related abilities such as the capacities to reason, to plan, to solve problems, to think abstractly, to comprehend ideas, to use language, and to learn.

It is important to note that intelligence is not about how much knowledge or expertise a person has; rather it is about how fast a person is able to acquire knowledge and expertise as well as how well a person is able to perform tasks at which he or she has no expertise.

Definition of IQ: The IQ is a measurement of intelligence. IQ presumes that there are differences in intelligence among people of a population and expresses, with one score, how intelligent a person is in relation to the rest of the population.

Value of Intelligence and Value of IQ Tests

Many contend that intelligence does not relate to cognitive abilities, and many criticize IQ tests for not measuring intelligence.

This criticism is not completely unfounded. It is true that intelligence is not clearly defined nor is it easily measured. By contrast, other human dimensions (height, weight, muscular strength) are self-defining and can be measured objectively.

However, we can make certain indisputable statements about IQ and intelligence as stated in the book, The Bell Curve:

  • There is a general cognitive ability on which human beings differ.
  • All standardized tests of academic aptitude measure this cognitive ability to some degree, but IQ tests, expressly designed for that purpose, measure it most accurately.
  • IQ scores match well to what people mean when they use the word intelligent.
  • Properly designed and administered IQ tests are not demonstrably biased against social, economic, ethnic, or racial groups.

IQ as Predictor of Success

The criticism against IQ tests can be countered by the successful use of IQ as a predictor of success in various domains.

Although IQ is not a perfect predictor of academic or work success, even critics recognize that there is a strong correlation betweenIQ and success.

IQ → Academic Success

The IQ test was originally designed as a predictor of the academic success of school children. Only later in the 20th century was its use extended to the work place.

While it is true that there are many other factors that determine success at school, IQ repeatedly is shown to have a high correlation with academic success.

IQ → Professional Success

The IQ can predict success at work. Measuring the job candidates' IQ and considering IQ in the recruitment decision is a useful tool. However, the use of IQ test in the work setting is even more controversial than in the academic setting.

Fewer than 50% of employers worldwide use IQ tests as a means of evaluating job candidates. There is a wide variation among countries. These are some examples:

  • 55% → China and Spain
  • 30% → India and France
  • 3% → U.S and Germany

Scientific research suggests that while an IQ test is not a perfect predictor of the future success of a job applicant and while many other factors are relevant to work success, IQ should be considered. This is because the IQ of a candidate correlates highly with future success at work. Recently, researchers compared the effectiveness of various methods of selecting employees: IQ tests, unstructured interviews, personality tests and biographical questionnaire. The result was unambiguous: the single best predictor of work success is IQ.

According to Schmidt and Hunter, "for hiring employees without previous experience in the job, the most valid predictor of future performance is intelligence." IQ test scores predict performance ratings in all occupations. That said, for highly qualified activities (research, management) low IQ scores are more likely to be a barrier to adequate performance, whereas for minimally-skilled activities, athletic strength (manual strength, speed, stamina, coordination) is more likely to influence performance.

Support for the usefulness of the IQ comes also from Justin Menkes in his article in the Harvard Business Review titled “Hiring for Executive Intelligence”. Menkes states: "Despite the very real shortcomings, IQ tests are still a better predictor of managerial success than any other assessment tool. The business world's reluctance to use intelligence testing of any kind has robbed companies of a powerful tool for evaluating candidates for employment or promotion.”

IQ → Wealth

As the IQ predictor is a good correlator to success at work, it also correlates with income and wealth. In essence, the higher your IQ, the more likely you are to have a higher income, accumulate more wealth and attain a greater social status.

The IQ of the world's self-made millionaires is estimated to be around 115. The IQ of the world's self-made billionaires is estimated to be around 120.

The table shows some astonishing facts about the relation of IQ to various life experiences:

  • If you have a low IQ, you are 6 times more likely to be unemployed than if you have a high IQ.
  • If you have a low IQ, you are almost 3 times more likely to divorce within 5 years after marriage than if you have a high IQ.
  • If you have a low IQ, you are 16 times more likely to have an illegitimate child than if you have a high IQ.
  • If you have a low IQ, you are 10 times more likely to go to jail than if you have a high IQ.
  • If you have a low IQ, you are 15 times more likely to live in poverty than if you have a high IQ.

What do we know about Intelligence

There are many definitions of intelligence.

  1. The American Psychological Association defines it as follows:

    • Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. Although these individual differences can be substantial, they are never entirely consistent: a given person’s intellectual performance will vary on different occasions, in different domains, as judged by different criteria.

    • Concepts of "intelligence" are attempts to clarify and organize this complex set of phenomena. Although considerable clarity has been achieved in some areas, no such conceptualization has yet answered all the important questions and none commands universal assent. Indeed, when two dozen prominent theorists were recently asked to define intelligence, they gave two dozen somewhat different definitions.

  2. A second definition of intelligence comes from "Mainstream Science on Intelligence", which was signed by 52 intelligence researchers in 1994:

    A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—"catching on", "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.


Mensa, the high IQ society

There are many rumours about intelligence and many falsities and half-truth written about it. To end this, in 1994 prominent researchers on intelligence came together and published the factual knowledge about intelligence. The following are their conclusions about scientific knowledge about intelligence.

The Meaning and Measurement of Intelligence

  • Intelligence is a very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts. Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings--"catching on," "making sense" of things, or "figuring out" what to do.

  • Intelligence, can be measured, and intelligence tests measure it well. They are among the most accurate (in technical terms, reliable and valid) of all psychological tests and assessments.

  • While there are different types of intelligence tests, they all measure the same intelligence. Some use words or numbers and require specific cultural knowledge, while others do not, instead they use shapes or designs and require knowledge of only simple, universal concepts.

  • The spread of people along the IQ continuum, from low to high, can be represented well by the bell curve. Most people cluster around the average (IQ 100). Few are either very bright or very dull: about 3% of Americans score above IQ 130 and about the same percentage below IQ 70.

IQ Group Differences

  • Members of all racial-ethnic groups can be found at every IQ level. The bell curves of different groups overlap considerably, but groups often differ in where their members tend to cluster along the IQ line. The bell curves for some groups (Jews and East Asians) are centered somewhat higher than for Whites in general. Other groups (Blacks and Hispanics) are centered somewhat lower than Whites.

  • The bell curve for Whites is centered roughly around IQ 100; the bell curve for American Blacks roughly around 85; and those for Hispanics roughly midway between those for Whites and Blacks. The evidence is less definitive for exactly where above IQ 100 the bell curves for Jews and Asians are centered.

Practical Importance of IQ

  • IQ is strongly related, probably more so than any other single measurable human trait, to many important educational, occupational, economic, and social outcomes. Its relation to the welfare and performance of individuals is very strong in some arenas in life (education, military training), moderate but robust in others (social competence), and modest but consistent in others (law-abidingness). Whatever IQ tests measure, it is of great practical and social importance.

  • A high IQ is an advantage in life because virtually all activities require some reasoning and decision-making. Of course, a high IQ no more guarantees success than a low IQ guarantees failure in life. There are many exceptions, but the odds for success in our society greatly favor individuals with higher IQ.

  • The practical advantages of having a higher IQ increase as life settings become more complex (novel, ambiguous, changing, unpredictable, or multifaceted). For example, a high IQ is generally necessary to perform well in highly complex or fluid jobs (white-collar professions, management): it is a considerable advantage in moderately complex jobs (crafts, clerical and police work); but it provides less advantage in settings that require only routine decision making or simple problem solving (unskilled work).

  • Differences in intelligence certainly are not the only factor affecting performance in education, training, and highly complex jobs, but intelligence is often the most important.

  • Certain personality traits, special talents, aptitudes, physical capabilities, experience, and the like are important for successful performance in many jobs, but they have narrower applicability or "transferability" across tasks and settings compared with general intelligence.

Source and Stability of Within-Group Differences

  • Individuals differ in intelligence due to differences in both their environments and genetic heritage. Heritability estimates range from 0.4 to 0.8 (on a scale from 0 to 1), indicating that genetics plays a bigger role than does environment in creating IQ differences among individuals.

  • Members of the same family also tend to differ substantially in intelligence for both genetic and environmental reasons. They differ genetically because biological brothers and sisters share exactly half their genes with each parent and, on the average, only half with each other. They also differ in IQ because they experience different environments within the same family.

  • That IQ may be highly heritable does not mean that it is not affected by the environment. Individuals are not born with fixed, unchangeable levels of intelligence. IQs do gradually stabilize during childhood, however, and generally change little thereafter.


The Smart Fraction Theory and the Wealth of Nations

What is Mensa?

Mensa was founded in England in 1946 by Roland Berrill, a barrister, and Dr. Lance Ware, a scientist and lawyer. They had the idea of forming a society for bright people, the only qualification for membership of which was a high IQ. The original aims were to create a society for highly intelligent people that is non-political and free from all racial or religious distinctions.

What are Mensa's goals?

Mensa has three stated purposes: to identify and foster human intelligence for the benefit of humanity, to encourage research in the nature, characteristics and uses of intelligence, and to promote stimulating intellectual and social opportunities for its members.

How many members does Mensa have?

Today there are some 100,000 Mensans in 100 countries throughout the world. This compares to 3 mln members worldwide of the online high IQ society IQ Elite.

What does "Mensa" mean?

The word "Mensa" means "table" in Latin. The name stands for a round-table society, where race, color, creed, national origin, age, politics, educational or social background are irrelevant.

How do I qualify for Mensa?

Membership in Mensa is open to persons who have attained a score within the upper two percent of the general population on an approved intelligence test that has been properly administered and supervised. The IQ requirement is thus higher than for the online high IQ society IQ Elite where only an IQ in the top 10% is required.


Assessing the Ashkenazic IQ

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